New, exciting revelations are showing Aboriginal people were not only hunters and gatherers but also sustainable agriculturalists. A re-consideration of primary sources from early colonial settlers and academic commentary over many decades proposes they were also effective land managers. Aboriginal people sustained crops uniquely suited to Australian conditions, farmed species like kangaroo and fish, and created processing and storage technologies.
In his book Dark Emu, Bruce Pascoe proposes Aboriginal people had clear design and building principles which provided shelter and safety from the environmental conditions they adapted to. He says what is critical is how they used the materials provided by Country.
He notes Aboriginal people in the southern Gulf of Carpentaria created large, domed, grass-covered shelters. These structures were adapted so the wet season could be survived in comfort, and so insects could be repelled by having a small, smokey fire within.
Aboriginal people have a deep and interconnected relationship with the physical and spiritual elements of Country. Their lives are entirely integrated with the places where they belong, where language, culture, knowledge, Law, and Ceremony are interdependent and one with Country. A change in one of these elements affects all the others.